Unit 3. Hurricane landfall site protection  

Unit 3. Hurricane landfall site protection

Vocabulary

band - связывать

beam - балка

building department - отдел технического контроля зданий

cancel - отменять

contact number — контактный номер

contractor - подрядчик

damage - разрушение

debris - мусор

delivery - поставка

electricity - электричество

emergency operation - чрезвычайная ситуация

expect - ожидать

field inspection - эксплуатационный контроль

hint - рекомендация

hurricane - ураган

hurricane landfall — обрушение урагана

include - включать

local - местный

locate - размещать

lumber - пиломатериалы

plywood - фанера

probability - возможность

protection - защита

provide — обеспечивать

related (to)— связанный с

remove - убирать

secure (from) — защищать от

site — строительная площадка

suggested time — рекомендуемое время

threat - угроза

turn off - выключать

window — перерыв в движении

Local emergency operations officials and the National Weather Service will provide hurricane landfall probabilities. Approximately 60 to 48 hours before the hurricane is expected to make landfall, consider canceling the delivery of building materials to all job sites except any materials needed to secure the building site from storm damage.

While contractors generally don’t want to stop or delay construction activities, the 48 to 24 hour window before landfall is the suggested time to stop all construction activity. It’s important to note that most local building departments generally stop field inspections, except for those related to pouring columns, tie beams, wet decks, floors and similar structural items, during this time as well.

Contractors are encouraged to activate their hurricane job site plan during this window of time. Notify subcontractors to help secure the building site. Helpful hints for site protection include:

· Secure all job sites, giving priority attention to those located in the most populated areas,

· Clean up all construction debris,

· Tie or band together all loose plywood and lumber. Secure other loose building supplies,

· Remove permit board and all job site signage,

· Locate and turn off electricity, water and gas.

After the site is secure, advise subcontractors to leave and not return until the hurricane threat has passed. Make sure to have contact numbers for all subcontractors stored in a secure and dry place, and that they know who will contact them after the hurricane passes.

Answer the questions to the text:

1. What should be done during hurricane landfall possibilities?

2. When should you cancel the delivery of building materials to all job sites?

3. What should be done to protect the site itself?

4. What should one advise subcontractors until the threat has passed?

Exercises:

1) Find the equivalents:

местное управление по чрезвычайным ситуациям, возможности обрушения урагана, обеспечить безопасность, эксплуатационный контроль, анкерная балка, полезный совет, расположен, фанера, пиломатериалы, идентификационный комплект, угроза миновала.

2) Translate:

to provide hurricane landfall probabilities, to be expected to do something, to cancel the delivery, job sites, to secure from storm damage, to delay construction activities, the suggested time, field inspections, to activate the hurricane job site plan, plywood, to be secure, to make sure.

3) Complete the sentences choosing the proper variant:

It’s important to note that most local building departments generally stop field inspections, except for those

a) located in the most populated areas

b) encouraged to activate their hurricane job site plan

c) related to pouring columns, tie beams, wet decks, floors and similar structural items

4) Write sentences using Reported Speech:

He said: «Secure all job sites».

She said: «Clean up all construction debris».

He said: «Tie or band together all loose plywood and lumber».

She said: «Secure other loose building supplies».

He said: «Remove permit board».

He said: «Locate water and gas».

She said: «Turn off electricity».

He said: «Cancel the delivery of building materials».

She said: «Don't return until the hurricane threat has passed».

References:

English for Construction 2. p.66, Evan Frendo, 2012

Unit 4. Right-of-Way

Vocabulary

adjoin - примыкать

borrow pit - резервный карьер

carriageway — проезжая часть

construction - строительство

drainage - дренаж

edge -край

embankment - насыпь

inner slope - внутренний склон

junction - соединение

lay - класть дорогу

mark — отмечать, помечать

outer slope - внешний склон

pavement - мостовая

reinforce - укреплять

remain - оставаться

required level — требующийся уровень

right-of-way — полоса отвода

road shoulder - обочина

road zone — полоса дорожного строительства

roadbed - дорожное полотно

shallow — мелкий, неглубокий

side ditch - продольная канава

solid - твердый

spoil bank - насыпь по бокам дорожной выемки

support - опора

surface - поверхность

vehicle – автомобиль, транспортное средство

width - ширина

The zone which is marked to lay the road is called the road zone or right-of-way. The higher is the technical classification of the road, the wider is the right-of-way for its construction. The road zone includes such parts of a road as a carriageway, road shoulders, inner and outer slopes, and other parts.

The road surface strip within the limits of which motor vehicles run is called a carriageway. Usually it is reinforced by means of natural or artificial stone aggregates. These stone aggregates form the pavement.

The strips of the ground which adjoin the carriageway are called the road shoulders. The shoulders render lateral support to the pavement. In future the pavement will always be made of solid materials within the limits of the carriageway.

To lay the carriageway at the required level above the ground surface a formation or roadbed is constructed. It is constructed in the form of embankments or cuttings with side ditches for drainage and the diversion of water.

The formation includes borrow pits – shallow excavations from which the soil was used for filling the embankments. It also includes spoil banks. Spoil banks are heaps of excessive soil remaining after the excavation of cuttings.

The carriageway and shoulders are separated from the neighboring land by slopes. The cuttings and side ditches have inner and outer slopes. The junction of the surface of the shoulders and the embankment slope is called the edge of the roadbed. The distance between the edges is called the width of the roadbed.

Answer the questions to the text:

1. What is called the road zone or right-of-way?

2. What parts of a road does the road zone include?

3. What is called a carriageway?

4. Is the carriageway usually reinforced by means of natural or artificial stone aggregates?

5. What is a roadbed constructed for?

Exercises:

1) Find the equivalents:

класть дорогу, проезжая часть, внешний склон, асфальт, требуемый уровень, дорожное полотно, котлован

2) Translate:

right-of-way, a carriageway, road shoulders, inner and outer slopes, road surface, reinforce, embankment, side ditch, roadbed

3) Complete the sentences choosing the proper variant:

a) To lay the carriageway at the required level above the ground surface

b) stone aggregates form the pavement

c) shoulders are separated from the neighboring land by slopes

d)a formation or roadbed is constructed.

4) Rewrite the sentences from Active into Passive voice:

1) They lay down road surface in order to sustain traffic. 2) In the past, they used gravel road surfaces and granite sets. 3) They replaced these surfaces by asphalt or concrete. 4) The leaking oils from the vehicles don't damage roads. 5) But heavy rain and other extreme weather conditions damage the asphalt road. 6) Melting asphalt produces lots of harmful green house gases.

References:Аудиторные тексты для чтения. Дорожное строительство. Английский язык. Контрольные задания. : учеб.-А647 метод. пособие / Л.В. Лукина,Л.Н. Крячко, О.Ф. Нестерова, Н.В.Сидорова; Воронеж. гос. арх.-строит. ун.-т. –Воронеж–c.128

.


Unit 5. Road surface

Vocabulary

abundantly - повсеместно

asphalt - асфальт

available - доступный

concrete - бетон

damage - разрушать

drain through - просачиваться

durable - долговечный

foot traffic — пешеходное движение

frequent - частый

granite - гранит

gravel - гравий

green house - парниковый

harmful - вредный

increase - увеличивать

infiltration - проникновение

layer - слой

leaking oil — утечка масла

limestone - известняк

melting - плавящийся

moreover — помимо того

paving method — метод мощения

permeable — проникающий

porous - пористый

recyclable - пригодный для переработки

reduce - уменьшать

repair - ремонт

replace - заменять

require - требовать

runoff - сток

sand - песок

service life — срок службы

site — строительная площадка

slab - блок

slide - скользить

slip - поскользнуться

surface - поверхность

sustain - выдерживать

traction — сцепление с дорогой

underlay (with) — залегать под

vehicular traffic — движение автотранспорта

walkway - тротуар

weather conditions — погодные условия

Road surface is the durable surface material laid down in order to sustain vehicular or foot traffic, such as a road or walkway.

In the past, gravel road surfaces and granite setts were used. These surfaces were replaced by asphalt or concrete.

Concrete roads have a long service life. Concrete road do not require frequent repair. Concrete roads are not damaged by the leaking oils from the vehicles or by the extreme weather conditions. It is produced from abundantly available limestone.

But vehicles tend to slip or slide on concrete road due to rain and snow. The paving cost of the concrete road is little higher than asphalt paving. In case the concrete road breaks, the whole concrete slab is replaced.

Asphalt roads provide better traction and help to keep roads free from ice and snow. Asphalt is a recyclable material. Moreover, it takes less time to build an asphalt road than a concrete road.

But heavy rain and other extreme weather conditions damage the asphalt road, and the roads need to be repaired frequently. Melting asphalt produces lots of harmful greenhouse gases. Also costly petroleum is required to produce asphalt.

Today, permeable paving methods are used for low-impact roadways and walkways. There are many options for permeable pavement materials.

Two alternatives to traditional asphalt pavement that are used on sites to reduce runoff and increase infiltration are porous pavement and modular block pavement.

Porous pavement is a 2-4 inch covering of permeable asphalt over layers of stone, gravel, and filter fabric that lets storm water drain through the surface and into the subsoil.

Modular block pavement consists of perforated concrete slab units underlain with gravel. The surface perforations are filled with coarse sand.

Answer the questions to the text:

  1. What materials are used for road surface?
  2. What are the advantages of concrete?
  3. What are the advantages of asphalt?
  4. What are the disadvantages of concrete?
  5. What are the disadvantages of asphalt?
  6. What does permeable paving method mean?

Exercises:

1) Find the equivalents:

поверхностный слой дорожного покрытия, укладывать, с целью, выдерживать, транспортный поток, заменять, асфальт, бетон, требовать ремонта, протечка масла, доступный, известняк, сцепление, проницаемое мощение, сток.

2) Translate:

foot traffic, walkway, gravel, to be replaced by, to have a long service life, to require frequent repair, to be damaged by, leaking oil, weather conditions, to be produced from abundantly available, to tend to, to provide better traction, to keep roads free from, to produce greenhouse gases, the leaking oils from the vehicles.

3) Complete the sentences:

Road surface is a surface material laid down

a) in order to contain different materials.

b) intended to sustain vehicular or foot traffic.

c) in order to slip or slide on the road.

4) Rewrite the sentences from Active into Passive voice:

1) They lay down road surface in order to sustain traffic. 2) In the past, they used gravel road surfaces and granite setts. 3) They replaced these surfaces by asphalt or concrete. 4) The leaking oils from the vehicles don't damage roads. 5) But heavy rain and other extreme weather conditions damage the asphalt road. 6) Melting asphalt produces lots of harmful greenhouse gases.

References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Road_surface

English in Land Cadaster.


0387332491314460.html
0387374670176611.html
    PR.RU™